Territorio Bildu (Colección Euskadi Información Global nº 2) (Spanish Edition)
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Political Conceptualisations of Welshness and Basqueness. Back Matter Pages About this book Introduction This book looks at the fundamental components of national identity as understood by ordinary nation members, and the way in which it is mobilised by political elites. Drawing on an original case comparison between Wales and the Basque Country, the author suggests there are many commonalities between these two nations, particularly around the fundamentals of their national identities.
Main article: Estuary of Bilbao. Main article: Climate of Bilbao. Otxarkoaga- Txurdinaga. Basurto- Zorroza. Main article: Port of Bilbao. Main category: Buildings and structures in Bilbao.
See also: Aste Nagusia. See also: Basque cuisine. Bilbao City Hall. Bilbao Cathedral. Arriaga Theater.
Estuary of Bilbao. Azkuna Zentroa. Iberdrola Tower. Funicular to Mount Artxanda. Mercado de la Ribera. Transport [ edit ] Roads and highways [ edit ] Bilbao is a relevant transport hub for northern Spain.
Table of contents
Railways [ edit ] Main article: Bilbao rail network. See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Spain. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
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National Statistics Institute. Retrieved 11 April Collins English Dictionary. Retrieved 29 May Oxford University Press. Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Archived from the original on 23 October Bilbao Guggenheim Museum. Retrieved 7 October Europa web portal. El Correo. The Project. Bilbao Newspaper. Editorial La Gran Enciclopedia Vasca, Archived from the original on 17 June Retrieved 3 December The city has adopted the banner created in for merchant ships, but the City Council has not officially adopted it.
Retrieved 9 September La Vanguardia. El Correo in Spanish. The territory has three distinct areas, which are defined by the two parallel ranges of the Basque Mountains ; the main range of mountains forms the watershed between the Mediterranean basins. The coast is rough, with small inlets. Between the two mountain ranges, the area is occupied by a high plateau called Llanada Alavesa, where the capital Vitoria-Gasteiz is located; the rivers flow south from the mountains to the Ebro River.
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The main rivers are the Zadorra Bayas River. From the southern mountains to the Ebro is the so-called Rioja Alavesa , which shares the Mediterranean characteristics of other Ebro Valley zones; some of Spain's production of Rioja wine takes place here. Precipitation average is about mm; the middle section is influenced more by the continental climate, but with a varying degree of the northern oceanic climate. This gives cold, snowy winters.
The Ebro valley has a pure continental climate: winters are cold and dry and summers warm and dry, with precipitation peaking in spring and autumn. Precipitation is irregular, as low as mm. Half of the 2,, inhabitants of the Basque Autonomous Community live in Greater Bilbao , Bilbao's metropolitan area.
Of the ten most populous cities, six form part of Bilbao's conurbation, known as Greater Bilbao. With Over recent years, sizeable numbers of this population have returned to their birthplaces and most immigration to the Basque country now comes from abroad, chiefly from South America. Roman Catholicism is, by far, the largest religion in the Basque Country. In , the proportion of Basques that identified themselves as Roman Catholic was The Basque-speaking areas in the modern-day autonomous community are set against the wider context of the Basque language, spoken to the east in Navarre and the French Basque Country ; the whole Basque speaking territory has experienced both expansion in its history.
After the advent of the Statute of Autonomy of the Basque Countr.
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Throughout this period the Castilian kings made extensive conquests in southern Iberia at the expense of the Islamic principalities. In Al-Andalus chronicles from the Cordoban Caliphate , the oldest sources refer to it as Al-Qila, or "the castled " high plains past the territory of Alava , more south to it and the first encountered in their expeditions from Zaragoza. The name reflects its origin as a march on the eastern frontier of the Kingdom of Asturias , protected by castles, towers or castra. The County of Castile, bordered in the south by the northern reaches of the Spanish Sistema Central mountain system, just north of modern-day Madrid province, it was re-populated by inhabitants of Cantabria , Asturias and Visigothic and Mozarab origins.
It had customary laws. A mix of settlers from the Cantabrian and Basque coastal areas, which were swelled with refugees, was led under the protection of Abbot Vitulus and his brother, count Herwig, as registered in the local charters they signed around the first years of the 's. Urraca permitted the greater part of the Leonese army to take refuge in the town of Zamora.
Sancho laid siege to the town, but the Castilian king was assassinated in by Bellido Dolfos, a Galician nobleman ; the Castilian troops withdrew. The before Alfonso VI in Santa Gadea de Burgos regarding the innocence of Alfonso in the matter of the murder of his brother is well known. During the first years of the 12th century Alfonso VI only son Sancho died leaving only his daughter. Due to this Alfonso VI took a different approach to the rest of Europeans kingdoms, including France.
His ship had to be abandoned, he died at sea on the return journey. Haute couture Haute couture is the creation of exclusive custom-fitted clothing. Haute couture is high-end fashion, constructed by hand from start to finish, made from high-quality, expensive unusual fabric and sewn with extreme attention to detail and finished by the most experienced and capable sewers - using time-consuming, hand-executed techniques. Couture translates from French as " dressmaking " but may refer to fashion, sewing, or needlework and is used as a common abbreviation of haute couture and refers to the same thing in spirit.
Haute translates to "high". A haute couture garment is always made for an individual client, tailored for the wearer's measurements and body stance. Considering the amount of time and skill allotted to each completed piece, haute couture garments are described as having no price tag: budget is not relevant; the term referred to Englishman Charles Frederick Worth's work, produced in Paris in the mid-nineteenth century.
The Dapifer notes that Worth would allow his clients to select colors and other details before beginning his design process, unheard of at the time. In modern France , haute couture is a protected name that may not be used except by firms that meet certain well-defined standards. However, the term is used loosely to describe all high-fashion custom-fitted clothing whether it is produced in Paris or in other fashion capitals such as London , New York City or Tokyo.
In either case, the term can refer to the fashion houses or fashion designers that create exclusive and trend-setting fashions or to the fashions created. In France, the term haute couture is protected by law and is defined by the Chambre de commerce et d'industrie de Paris based in Paris; the chambre syndicale de la haute couture is defined as "the regulating commission that determines which fashion houses are eligible to be true haute couture houses". Their rules state that only "those companies mentioned on the list drawn up each year by a commission domiciled at the Ministry for Industry are entitled to avail themselves" of the label haute couture; the Chambre Syndicale de la Couture Parisienne is an association of Parisian couturiers founded in as an outgrowth of medieval guilds that regulate its members in regard to counterfeiting of styles, dates of openings for collections, number of models presented, relations with press, questions of law and taxes, promotional activities.
Formation of the organization was brought about by Charles Frederick Worth.
An affiliated school was organized in called L'Ecole de la Chambre Syndicale de la Couture; the school helps bring new designers to help the "couture" houses. More rigorous criteria for haute couture were established in To earn the right to call itself a couture house and to use the term haute couture in its advertising and any other way, members of the Chambre Syndicale de la Haute Couture must follow specific rules: design made-to-order for private clients, with one or more fittings; the term "haute couture" has taken on further popular meanings referring to non-dressmaking activities, such as production of fine art, etc.
Haute couture can be referenced back as early as the 17th Century. Rose Bertin , the French fashion designer to Queen Marie Antoinette , can be credited for bringing fashion and haute couture to French culture. Visitors to Paris brought back clothing, copied by local dressmakers. Stylish women ordered dresses in the latest Parisian fashion to serve as models; as railroads and steamships made European travel easier, it was common for wealthy women to travel to Paris to shop for clothing and accessories.
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French fitters and dressmakers were thought to be the best in Europe , real Parisian garments were considered better than local imitations. A couturier is an establishment or person involved in the clothing fashion industry who makes original garments to order for private clients. A couturier may make; such a person hires patternmakers and machinists for garment production, is either employed by exclusive boutiques or is self-employed.
The couturier Charles Frederick Worth, is considered the father of haute couture as it is known today. Although born in Bourne, England , Worth made his mark in the French fashion industry. Revolutionizing how dressmaking had been perceived, Worth made it so the dressmaker became the artist of garnishment : a fashion designer. While he created one-of-a-kind designs to please some of his titled or wealthy customers, he is best known for preparing a portfolio of designs that were shown on live models at the House of Worth. Clients selected one model, specified colors and fabrics, had a duplicate garment tailor-made in Worth's workshop.
Worth combined individual tailoring with a standardization more characteristic of the ready-to-wear clothing industry, developing during this period. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Place in Basque Country, Spain. National Statistics Institute.