Worlds and Individuals, Possible and Otherwise

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Notify me. Description Modal realism says that non-actual possible worlds and individuals are as real as the actual world and individuals. Takashi Yagisawa defends modal realism of a variety different from David Lewis's theory. The notion of reality is left primitive and sharply distinguished from that of existence, which is proposed as a relation between a thing and a domain.

Worlds and Individuals, Possible and Otherwise

Worlds are postulated as modal indices for truth on a par with times, which are temporal indices for truth. Ordinary individual objects are conceived as being extended in spatial, temporal, and modal dimensions, and their transworld identity is explicated by the closest-continuer theory. Impossible worlds and individuals are postulated and used to provide accounts of propositions, belief sentences, and fictional discourse. Beyond Good and Evil Friedrich Nietzsche. Add to basket. Tuesdays With Morrie Mitch Albom.

Way of the Hermes Clement Salaman. Modal Realism 1. Time, Space, World 2. Existence 3. Actuality 4. Modal Realism and Modal Tense 5. Transworld Individuals and Their Identity 6.

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Modal realism says that non-actual. Please Install Woocommerce Plugin.

RAR 2 Posts navigation Page 1 Page 2 Next page. In addition, many merely possible automobiles not made of any actually existing parts and many merely possible human beings not resulting from the fusion of any actually existing egg and sperm are also real. Even many merely possible automobiles and humans not constituted by any actually existing elementary particles are real, too. MODALITY DE RE All versions of individual constituent realism with mere possibilia are fully realist in the sense that they postulate merely possible worlds and merely possible individuals, as well as the actual world and actual individuals, as real.

The issue is a familiar one and concerns not the status of merely possible worlds or mere possibilia but the analysis of modality de re. As the results of the US presidential election were announced, Hubert Humphrey could have raised his arms in triumph over Richard Nixon, even 15 Salmon So there is a possible world, w, at which Humphrey raised his arms, even though he did not at the actual world. If one applied individual constituent realism to this picture straightforwardly, one would say that Humphrey is a constituent of w and raised his arms as a constituent of w, even though he is also a constituent of the actual world and did not raise his arms as a constituent of the actual world.

But Lewis rejects this as an unacceptable case of overlap. But such a situation is impossible. Endurantism is the claim concerning temporal metaphysics that Humphrey, for example, exists wholly at every moment of his life. Lewis assumes that the view he criticizes asserts a modal analog of endurantism, namely the claim that Humphrey exists wholly at and also exists wholly at w. If we deny this, his objection loses its bite.

Worlds And Individuals, Possible And Otherwise

The modal realist theory I favor denies it. Humphrey is a constituent of only one possible world, namely , and held his arms down simpliciter, but he bears a special relation not identity to some merely possible individual who is a constituent of w and who raised his arms simpliciter. The special relation is the counterpart relation, and Lewis thinks of it as a similarity relation. Humphrey is said to have raised his arms at w by virtue of 16 17 18 I follow the customary use of this symbol as the name of the actual world. Lewis — For a response to Lewis which does not reject the modal analog of endurantism, see McDaniel 19 The similarity relation that is the counterpart relation is independent of the similarity relation explicitly invoked in a statement of modality.

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For example, I could have been more like you than myself. So at some possible world, my counterpart is more like you than myself. See Feldman ; Lewis —5. For example, you may count as my counterpart at the actual world under special circumstances in which it is true to say that I might have been you. See Lewis —2, esp. Modal Realism 15 bearing some external, indeed transworld, relation to some other individual who is a constituent of w and who raised his arms. Humphrey does not exist at w, hence he is not a constituent of w. Instead Humphrey has a representation at w, namely, the bearer of the external relation in question to him.

Humphrey is said to be one way or another but not existent or a constituent21 at w precisely by virtue of his representative at w being that way. On an actualist non-individual constituent realism, a possible world at which donkeys talk is a possible world which contains say the proposition that donkeys talk. The existence of talking donkeys is represented by that proposition. Lewis, like his actualist rivals, resorts to representations in a crucial way. The complaint usually comes from actualists, but not all actualists are in a position to make the complaint.

According to them, the truth conditions for non-actual possibilities de re involve representations instead of the res itself. An actualist who holds such a theory and who accuses Lewis of inadequacy on this score is a kettle 21 We should be careful to distinguish between the question of Humphrey being existent or a constituent at w he is not and the question of Humphrey being represented by his counterpart as being existent or a constituent at w he is.

To be a realist about objects of a certain kind is to hold that statements about those objects are true in virtue of the right sort of facts involving those objects in the right sort of way. A fully realist treatment in an important sense of modality de re e. So, my complaint against Lewis is more general in scope than the usual complaint by actualists.

Not all actualists are subject to this criticism. For example, those who hold that possible worlds are maximally consistent states of affairs, propositions, sets of states of affairs, or sets of propositions, are not.

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This, of course, does not mean that actualism of this type is completely satisfactory. It still has to face the challenges, inter alia, of giving a non-circular characterization of consistency provided that reduction of modality is intended , accounting for possibilities about mere possibilia, and either living with the primitiveness of states of affairs or propositions, or giving non-circular characterizations of them. One way to reveal the non-straightforwardness resulting from their aversion is to point out how similar mere possibilia are to actual individuals, about which actualists have no qualms.

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Lewis employs this strategy, and I approve of it. But there is another way. It is to point out how similar mere possibilia are to non-actual possible worlds, about which actualists also have no qualms.